48 ALASKAK GLACIER STUDIES would be very important, for it matches the latest great advance in Yakutat Bay and Russell Fiord,1 which we have tentatively dated as not much over a century ago, but from which the ice has now retreated 15 to 25 miles, as will be described in a later chapter. That Malaspina Glacier has had a recent great advance, though of a date which cannot be stated exactly, is proved by the forest trees incorporated in the gravels at Blossom Island, although trees are growing on its summit. This advance may have occurred within a century, and it may be indicated by the evidence above stated; but we cannot correlate it with certainty. Later Observations on the Malaspina. Between May 21 and 26, 1874, a Coast Survey party visited Yakutat Bay and made a determination of the elevation of Mt. St. Elias.2 At this season the entire surface of the Malaspina Glacier was so covered with snow that its true character was not discovered; but in June, 1880, when the snow had disappeared from ,the lower portions of the glacier, the fact that it was a low-lying ice plateau at the mountain base was discovered by Dall and Baker and the name Malaspina was given to it.8 It was then stagnant and partly covered with moraines with some vegetation on the ice near Pt. Manby. In the next decade several expeditions crossed a part of the glacier and made observations upon it, though the main object of the expeditions was the ascent of Mt. St. Elias rather than glacier study. These were the New York Times Expedition of 1886, as a result of which parts of Malaspina Glacier were briefly described by Lieut. Frederick Schwatka,* by H. W. Seton Karr,B by Prof. William Libbey, Jr,,fl and the Topham Expedition of 1888, after which parts of the western Malaspina Glacier and its tributaries were described by H. W. Topham,7 by George Broke 8 and by William Williams.9 These explorations, however, were not made in that part of the Malaspina Glacier on which the authors of this book have made their recent observations. It was not until Prof. I. C. Russell made his first expedition to Mt. St. Elias, in 1890, that the remarkable peculiarities of the Malaspina Glacier were made known;10 and additional observations were made the following year in his second expedition.11 On these two expeditions Russell crossed all the tributaries of the Malaspina between Yakutat Bay and the base of Mount St. Elias, and ascended several of them; he traversed the entire outer margin of the Malaspina from the Yahtse to Kwik River; he crossed the i Tarr, R. S. and Martin, Lawrence, Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. YXXVMI, 1906, pp. 162-164; Tarr, R. S., Professional Paper 64, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1909, pp. 134-187. »Dall, W. H., Ann. Rept., U. S. Coast Survey for 1876, Appendix 10, p. 167. • Coast Pilot, Alaska, Pt. 1, Washington, 1883, p. 212. • Schwatka, 3?., New York Times, Oct. 17,1886; The Expedition of the New York Times, Century Magazine, Vol. XII, 1891, pp. 866-872. «Shores and Alps of Alaska, London, 1887, pp. 46-124; Alpine Regions of Alaska, Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., Vol. IX, 1887, pp. 269-276. < Some of the Geographic Features of Southeastern Alaska, Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. XVTII, 1886, pp. 279-300. i A Visit to the Glaciers of Alaska and Mt. St. Elias, Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., Vol. XI, 1889, pp. 424-438; An Expedition to Mt. St. Elias, Alpine Journal, Vol. XIV, 1889, pp. 346-371. • With Stock and Sack in Alaska, London, 1891, pp. 37-121. • Climbing Mt. St. Elian, Scribner's Magazine, Vol. V. 1889, p. 387-408. " Russell, I. C., An Expedition to Mount St. Elias, Alaska, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. IDE., 1891, pp. 63-208; Twelfth Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Pt 1,1891, pp. 59-61.. « Russell,!. C., Second Expedition to Mount St. Elias, Thirteenth Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Pt. 2,1892, pp. 1-91.